Sunday, July 21, 2019

Causes of Variation in Construction Projects

Causes of Variation in Construction Projects Literature reviews that of Variations and Variation Orders requires a comprehensive understanding of the root causes of Variations (Hester et al., 1991).Variations some of which are financial, design aesthetics, changes in drawings, weather, geological and geotechnical reasons. From the literature review, there were 53 causes of Variations identified and these Variations are mainly caused by the Employer, Consultants and Contractors. As shown in Figure 1, these causes of Variations were grouped under four categories: Employer related Variations, Consultants related Variations, Contractor related Variations and other Variations. These Causes of Variations have been identified by many researchers (CII, 1990a; Thomas and Napolitan, 1994; Clough and Sears, 1994; Fisk, 1997; Ibbs et al., 1998; OBrien, 1998; Mokhtar et al., 2000; Gray and Hughes, 2001; Arain et al., 2004). The causes of Variations can be categorized according to the originators (CII, 1990a; Thomas and Napolitan, 1994). The 53 causes identified from the literature review are also discussed below. A. Employer Related Changes This section discusses the causes of variations that were initiated by the Employer. In some cases, the Employer directly initiates Variations or the Variations are required because the Employer fails to fulfil certain requirements for carrying out the project. Change of plans or scope by Employer: Change of plan or scope of project is one of the most significant causes of Variations in construction projects (CII, 1990b) and is usually the result of insufficient planning at the project planning stage, or also i can because of lack of involvement of the Employer in the design phase (Arain et al., 2004). This cause the Variations affects the project severely during the later phases. Change of schedule by Employer: A change of schedule or master programme during the project construction phase may result in major resource reallocation (Fisk, 1997; OBrien, 1998). This is because time has an equivalent money value. A change in schedule means that the Contractor will either provide additional resources, or keep some resources idle in the construction site. In both cases additional cost is incurred. Employers financial problems: The Employer of the project may run into difficult financial situations that force him to make changes in an attempt to reduce cost of the project. Employers financial problems affect project progress and quality (Clough and Sears, 1994; OBrien, 1998). Proper financial planning and review of project cash flow would be effective in avoid this problem to from happening. Inadequate project objectives: Inadequate project objectives are one of the causes of Variations in construction projects (Ibbs and Allen, 1995). Due to inadequate project objectives, the designers would not be able to develop a comprehensive design which leads to many of Variations during the project construction phase. Replacement of materials or procedures: Replacement of materials or procedures may cause major Variations during the construction phase. The substitution of procedures includes Variations in application methods (Chappell and Willis, 1996). Therefore, an adjustment to the original contract value is required if there is a change in procedures. Impediment in prompt decision making process: Prompt decision making is an important factor for project success (Sanvido et al., 1992; Gray and Hughes, 2001). A delay in decision making may obstruct the progress of subsequent construction activities and that may eventually delay the entire project progress. Obstinate nature of Employer: A building project is the result of the combined efforts of the professionals. They have to work at the various interfaces of a project (Wang, 2000; Arain et al., 2004). If the Employer is obstinate, he may not accommodate other creative and beneficial ideas. Eventually, this may cause major Variations in the later stages and affect the project negatively. Change in specifications by owner: Changes in specifications are frequent in construction projects with inadequate project objectives (OBrien, 1998). In a multi-player environment like any construction project, change in specifications by the Employer during the construction phase may require major Variations and adjustments in project planning and procurement activities. B. Consultant Related Variations This section discusses the causes of Variations that were initiated by the consultant. In some cases, the consultant directly initiates Variations or the Variations are required because the consultant fails to fulfil certain requirements for carrying out the project. Change in design by Consultants: Change in design for improvement by the Consultant is a norm in contemporary professional practice (Arain et al., 2004). The changes in design are frequent in projects where construction starts before the design is finalized (Fisk, 1997). Design changes can affect a project adversely depending on the timing of the occurrence of the changes. Errors and omissions in design: Errors and omissions in design are an important cause of project to delays (Arain et al., 2004). Design errors and omissions may lead to loss of productivity and delay in project schedule (Assaf et al., 1995). Hence, errors and omissions in design can affect a project adversely depending on the timing of the occurrence of the errors. Conflicts between contract documents: Conflict between contract documents can result in misinterpretation of the actual requirement of a project (CII, 1986a). To convey complete project scope for participants, the contract documents must be clear and straight to the point. Insufficient details in contract documents may adversely affect the project, leading to delay in project completion. Inadequate scope of work for contractor: In a multi-player environment like construction, the scope of work for all the players must be clear and without uncertainty for successful project completion (Fisk, 1997; Arain et al., 2004). Inadequate scope of work for the contractor can cause major Variations that may negatively affect the project, and leads to changes in construction planning. Technology change: Technology change is a potential cause of Variations in a project. Project planning should be flexible for accommodating new beneficial Variations (CII, 1994b). This is because the new technology can be beneficial in the project life cycle, for instance, reducing maintenance cost of the project. Or new methods of constructions that reduce construction cost. Value engineering: Value engineering should ideally be carried out during the design phase (DellIsola, 1982). During the construction phase, value engineering can be a costly exercise, as Variation in any design element would initiate and leads to Variations to other relevant design components (Mokhtar et al., 2000). Lack of coordination: A lack of coordination between parties may cause major variations that could eventually impact the project adversely (Arain et al., 2004). Unfavourable Variations, which affect the projects negatively, can usually be managed at an early stage by paying extra focus in coordination. Design complexity: Complex designs require unique skills and construction methods (Arain et al., 2004). Complexity affects the flow of construction activities, whereas simple and linear construction works are relatively easy to handle (Fisk, 1997). Hence, complexity may cause major Variations in construction projects. Inadequate working drawing details: To convey a complete concept of the project design, the working drawings must be clear and concise (Geok, 2002). Insufficient working drawing details can result in misinterpretation of the actual requirement of a project (Arain et al., 2004). Thorough reviewing of design details would assist in minimizing Variations. Inadequate shop drawing details: Shop drawings are usually developed for construction work details for site professionals (Cox and Hamilton, 1995). As mentioned earlier with regard to working drawing details, likewise, inadequacy of shop drawing details can be a potential cause of Variations in the construction projects. Consultants lack of judgment and experience: Professional experience and judgment is an important factor for a successful completion of a building project (Clough and Sears, 1994; OBrien, 1998). The lack of professional experience increases the risk of errors in design as well as during construction. Eventually, this may affect the project quality and delay the project completion. Lack of consultants knowledge of available materials and equipment: Knowledge of available materials and equipment is an important factor for developing a comprehensive design (Geok, 2002). In the construction industry where material standardization is not common, the consultants lack of knowledge of available materials and equipment can cause numerous major Variations during various project phases. Honest wrong beliefs of consultant: Honest wrong beliefs may cause construction professionals to contribute poor value add in projects (Arain, 2002; Arain et al., 2004). Consultants, without having firsthand knowledge, may make decisions based on their wrong beliefs which would adversely affect the pace of the project. Consultants lack of required data: A lack of data can result in misinterpretation of the actual requirements of a project (Assaf et al., 1995; Arain, 2002). When there is insufficient data, consultants are prone to develop designs based on their own perceptions, which may not be what the Employer wants. Eventually, this may cause major Variations and affect the project negatively. Obstinate nature of consultant: In a multi-player environment like construction, the professionals have to work as team at the various interfaces of a project (Wang, 2000; Arain et al., 2004). If the consultant is obstinate, he may not accommodate other creative and beneficial ideas. Eventually, this may cause major Variations in the later stages and affect the project Negatively. Ambiguous design details: A clearer design tends to be comprehended more readily (OBrien, 1998). Ambiguity or Doubtfulness or uncertainty in design is a potential cause of Variations in a project. This is because ambiguity in design can be misinterpreted by project participants, leading to rework and delay in the project completion. Eventually, this may affect the project progress negatively. Design discrepancies (inadequate design): Inadequate design can be a frequent cause of Variations in construction projects (CII, 1990a; Fisk, 1997). Design discrepancies affect the project functionality and quality. Eventually, this can affect a project adversely depending on the timing of the occurrence of the Variations. Noncompliance of design with government regulations: Noncompliance of design with government regulations or policies would cost the project difficult to execute (Clough and Sears, 1994). Noncompliance with government regulations may affect the project safety and progress negatively, leading to serious accidents and delays in the project completion. Noncompliance of design with owners requirements: A comprehensive design is one that accommodates the owners requirements (Cox and Hamilton, 1995). A noncompliance design with the owners requirements is considered an inadequate design (Fisk, 1997). Eventually, this may cause Variations for accommodating the Employers requirements. This may affect the project adversely during the construction phase. Change in specifications by consultant: Changes in specifications are frequent in construction projects with inadequate project objectives (OBrien, 1998). As mentioned earlier with respect to changes in specifications by the Employer, this is also a potential cause of Variations in a project, leading to reworks and delays in the project completion. C. Contractor Related Variations This section discusses the causes of Variations that were related to the Contractor. In some cases, the contractor may suggest Variations to the project, or the Variations may be required because the contractor fails to fulfil certain requirements for carrying out the project. Lack of Contractors involvement in design: Involvement of the Contractor in the design may assist in developing better designs by accommodating his creative and practical ideas (Arain et al., 2004). Lack of Contractors involvement in design may eventually cause Variations. Practical ideas which are not accommodated during the design phase will eventually affect the project negatively. Unavailability of equipment: Unavailability of equipment is a procurement problem that can affect the project completion (OBrien, 1998). Occasionally, the lack of equipment may cause major design Variations or adjustments to project scheduling to accommodate the replacement. Unavailability of skills (shortage of skilled manpower): Skilled manpower is one of the major resources required for complex technological projects (Arain et al., 2004). Shortage of skilled manpower is more likely to occur in complex technological projects. This lack can be a cause for Variations that may delay the projects completion date. Contractors financial difficulties: Construction is a labour intensive industry. Whether the Contractor has been paid or not, the wages of the worker must still be paid (Thomas and Napolitan, 1994). Contractors financial difficulties may cause major Variations during a project, affecting its quality and progress and in some cases even the safety of the site is affected if there is an argument. Contractors desired profitability: Contractors desired profitability can be a potential cause of Variations in construction projects. This is because Variations are considered a common source of additional works for the contractor (OBrien, 1998). The Contractor may eventually strive to convince the project Employer to allow certain Variations, leading to additional financial benefits for him. Differing site conditions: Differing site condition can be an important cause of delays in large building projects (Assaf et al., 1995). The contractor may face different soil conditions than those indicated in the tender documents. Eventually this may affect his cost estimates and schedule negatively. Defective workmanship: Defective workmanship may lead to demolition and rework in construction projects (Fisk, 1997; OBrien, 1998). Defective workmanship results in low quality in construction projects (Arain et al., 2004). Even the Contractor bares the cost of the defective work, but this also may affect the project negatively, leading to rework and delay in the project completion. Unfamiliarity with local conditions: Familiarity with local conditions is an important factor for the successful completion of a construction project (Clough and Sears, 1994). If the Contractor is not aware of local conditions, it would be extremely difficult for him to carry out the project. Eventually, project delays may occur that end up with vital Variations in the entire design entity. Lack of a specialized construction manager: The construction manager carries out the construction phase in an organized way to eliminate the risks of delays and other problems. Lack of a specialized construction manager may lead to defective workmanship and delay in the construction project. Fast track construction: Fast track construction requires an organized system to concurrently carry out interdependent project activities (Fisk, 1997). When the public and private sectors have large funds and want to complete projects in a very short time, complete construction drawings and specifications may not be available when the contractor starts work (Arain et al., 2004).Eventually, this procurement mode may cause major Variations. Poor procurement process: Procurement delays have various negative effects on other processes in the construction cycle (Fisk, 1997). Occasionally, the procurement delay may cause an entire change or replacement for originally specified materials or equipment for the project (Arain et al., 2004). This may therefore cause a need for project activities to be reworked. Lack of communication: Detrimental Variations, which affect the projects adversely, can usually be managed at an early stage with strong and incessant communication. A lack of coordination and communication between parties may cause major Variations that could eventually impact the project negatively (Arain et al., 2004). Contractors lack of judgment and experience: The consultants lack of professional experience increases the risk of errors during construction (OBrien, 1998). This lack may cause major construction Variations in a project, when both Contractor and consultant could not identify or foresee the problems in the planning stage due to both parties are lacking of experience. Eventually, this may affect the project quality and delay the project completion. Long lead procurement: Procurement delays have various adverse affects on other processes in the construction cycle (Fisk, 1997). Occasionally, the procurement delay may cause an entire change or replacement for originally specified materials or equipment for the project. Delay in long lead procurement is a common cause of delays in building projects (Assaf et al., 1995). Honest wrong beliefs of contractor: As mentioned earlier with respect to honest wrong beliefs of the consultant, honest wrong beliefs of the contractor can also be a potential cause of Variations in construction projects. Contractors, without having firsthand knowledge, may make decisions based on their wrong beliefs which would adversely affect the quality and pace of the project. Complex design and technology: Complex design and technology require detailed interpretations by the designer to make it comprehensible for the Contractor (Arain, 2002). A complex design may be experienced for the first time by the Contractor. Eventually, the complexity may affect the flow of construction activities, leading to delays in the project completion. Lack of strategic planning: Proper strategic planning is an important factor for successful completion of a building project (Clough and Sears, 1994; CII, 1994a). The lack of strategic planning is a common cause of Variations in projects where construction starts before the design is finalized, for instance, in concurrent design and construction contracts (OBrien, 1998). Contractors lack of required data: A lack of required data may affect the contractors strategic planning for successful project completion, leading to frequent disruptions during the construction process. This is because a lack of data can result in misinterpretation of the actual requirements of a project (Assaf et al., 1995; Arain et al., 2004). Contractors obstinate nature: As mentioned earlier with regard to the obstinate nature of consultant, likewise, this can be a potential cause of Variations in construction projects. If the Contractor is obstinate, he may not accommodate creative and beneficial ideas suggested by others. Eventually, this may cause major Variations in the later stages and affect the project negatively. D. Other Variations This section discusses the causes of Variations that were not directly related to the project team. Weather conditions: Adverse weather conditions can affect outside activities in construction projects (Fisk, 1997; OBrien, 1998). When weather conditions vary such as the various monsoon seasons in Malaysia, the contractor needs to adjust the construction schedule accordingly. Occasionally, this may affect the project progress negatively, leading to delays in construction. Safety considerations: Safety is an important factor for the successful completion of a building project (Clough and Sears, 1994). Noncompliance with safety requirements may cause major Variations in design. Lack of safety considerations may affect the project progress negatively, leading to serious accidents and delays in the project completion. Change in government regulations: Local authorities may have specific codes and regulations that need to be accommodated in the design (Arain et al., 2004). Change in government regulations during the project construction phase may cause major Variations in design and construction. This can affect a project negatively depending on the timing of the occurrence of the changes. Change in economic conditions: Economic conditions are one of the influential factors that may affect a construction project (Fisk, 1997). The economic situation of a country can affect the whole construction industry and its participants. Eventually, this may affect the project negatively, depending on the timing of the occurrence of the Variations. Socio-cultural factors: Professionals with different socio-cultural backgrounds may encounter problems due to different perceptions, and this may affect the working environment of the construction project (Arain et al., 2004). Lack of coordination is common between professionals with different socio-cultural backgrounds (OBrien, 1998). Eventually, project delays may occur that end up with vital changes in the entire project team. Unforeseen problems: Unforeseen conditions are usually faced by professionals in the construction industry (Clough and Sears, 1994; OBrien, 1998). If these conditions are not solved as soon as possible, they may cause major Variations in the construction projects. Eventually, this may affect the project negatively, leading to reworks and delays in the project completion.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Is Restorative Justice More Appropriate in Dealing With Young Offenders

This essay aims to make clear the system of restorative justice and its aims towards youth offending, whilst arguing points for and against the current system and whether or not it is more appropriate in terms of dealing with youth offending. It will also define restorative justice as well as defining what is meant by conventional justice. Making clear how and why these two systems came to be a part of youth justice whilst concluding as to which if either is more appropriate in dealing with youth offending behaviour. â€Å"Restorative justice is a process whereby parties with a stake in a specific offence collectively resolve how to deal with the aftermath of the offence and its implications for the future† (Munchie, 2004). Restorative Justice is a new way of thinking about and responding to crime, especially in relation to youth offending. For the past decade, especially, there has been an increasing interest in new approaches towards criminal justice in general but more so in terms of juvenile delinquency and finding an appropriate form of punishment to escape the labelling of youth delinquency, which involve the community and focus much more on the victim. Zehr (1990) who is thought to be one of the pioneers leading the argument for restorative justice highlighted three questions presented when taking a restorative approach; what is the nature of the harm resulting from the crime? What needs to be done to make things right or repair the harm? Who is responsible for this repair? He ascertained that ‘crime is fundamentally a violation of people and interpersonal relationships’. He also noted that violations create obligations and liabilities and that restorative justice seeks to heal and put right the wrongs. Restorative jus... ...rime. London: Sage Publications. Roche, D. (2003), Accountability in Restorative Justice, Oxford: University Press. White, R. & Haynes, F. (1996) Crime and Criminology: an introduction. Oxford University Press UK. Umbreit, M. & Bradshaw, W. & Coates, R. (1994) Victims of severe violence meet the offender: restorative justice through dialogue. International Review of Victimology, 6, p321-344. Williams, K, S. (2001) Textbook On Criminology. (4th) Edition. Oxford University Press UK. Wright, N. (1996). A Sociology of Apology and Reconciliation, Stanford: University Press. Young, M. (1999) Restorative community justice in the United States: A new paradigm. International Review of Victimology, 6, p265-277. Zehr, H. (1990) Changing Lenses: A new focus for Crime and Justice. Herald Press USA. Acts Of Parliament Human Rights Act 1998 (c.53) London : HMSO

Friday, July 19, 2019

chinese religous and ethical systems :: essays research papers

Chinese Religious and Ethical Systems   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  It has often been said that the Chinese are not deeply religious. It is true that they have shown a comparative indifference to metaphysical speculation; Chinese culture was perhaps the first to develop an intellectual skepticism concerning the gods.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Confucianism Confucius (Kong Zi) lived from 551 to 479 BC in the state of Lu (in modem Shandong province). He came from a family of officials and his concern was with the restoration of the Way (Dao) of the ancient sages. His teaching was therefore related mainly to society and its government. He advocated strict conformity, and thought that fostering correct behavior, within the context of the family, would produce an ordered society. He was not particularly interested in religion, except insofar as it related to social life. However, in 59 AD during the Han dynasty, it was decreed that sacrifice should be made to Confucius and this began a process that was to make Confucian philosophy into the foundation of the Chinese political order. Confucius himself had only accepted the legitimacy of sacrifice to one's own ancestors, but from now on an official Confucian cult emerged, with its own temples. It gradually became linked with the state cult of the Emperor. From the fifth century AD Confucian orthodoxy retreated before the popularity of Buddhism and Daoism. But a renaissance came during the Sung dynasty when Confucianism responded to the challenge and developed its own metaphysics. This new trend is known as Neo-Confucianism, and its main exponent was Zhu Xi (1130-1200). It subsequently became the main orthodoxy of the scholar officials until the demise of the imperial system in 1912. In contemporary China, the Confucian cult has disappeared, but the Confucian approach to government and society retains a powerful hold on many people.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Daoism (Taoism) The origins of Daoism are obscure, but it is first seen as a rival to Confucianism. The teachings of early Taoism are ascribed to Lao Zi in the fifth century BC who is the reputed author of the most influential Taoist text, the Dao De Jing (The Way and its Power). Where the Confucian stressed ethical action, the Taoist spoke of the virtue of Wu Wei (non-action), going with the flow of things. Like the Confucians, Daoists looked back to a golden age. The good ruler, they thought, guided his people with humility, not seeking to interfere with the rhythms of social life conducted within the larger patterns of the natural world and the whole cosmos.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

student :: essays research papers

The first people that came upon the Ice Man were Helmut and Erika Simon that also meant that they were the first two to compromise the integrity of the site. When they got there they moved a birch bark bundle out of the way when they got (Page 8). The next person that came to the site was Markus Pirpamer, the manger of the Weisskugel Lodge. The way he affected the site was when he moved the axe from the rock next to the body to another rock that was close by, in addition to that he did some other general scavenging (Page 13). Anton Koler also came in and looked around the site, he even moved the axe in order to take a better picture of it (17 Page). Markus was the first to remove an item from the site, the axe (Page 17). Hans Kammerlander disturbed the site by taking the stick off the ledge near the string and fur and using it to hack away the ice around the body (Page 23). There are many thing that the could have been done better as far as the excavating of the Ice Man, the biggest being how they did it. Because every showed up at first with the thought of it being a recant accidentally death of a climber, show because of that they took less care of the scene than they would have if the new it was an archeological find. Koler used a mini jackhammer to try and unbury the Ice Man and while doing so he struck the body itself. All the moving around of all the things makes it impossible to know exactly were everything was in relation to Otzi. I has prevented us from learning for sure f this was the original place of death, meaning has the ice melted and moved this whole group half way down the mountain. This is brought up by the fact that the body was found with the blue ski clip, obviously not something from the time of the Otzi. Another thing that went wrong with the excavation is the way he molded because of the way he was left in the ice over night, eve n though covered. When dealing with the Ice Man the archaeologists had to apply different methods at different parts in time. At the very beginning before any of the real excavating had been started there was some relative dating done with the axe, using knowledge of previously found axes of this same type or style to try and put the Otzi in a time period.

Examine critically the GLA proposal to introduce congestion charging

Traffic congestion has been a major problem for many of the cities in the UK and nowhere more than in the central of the largest UK city and capital London. It is known that 50% of drivers' time going though central London is spent in queues and at peak times and that times of high amounts of traffic average speeds of vehicles are under 10 miles per hour (Transport for London, 2001, Congestion Charging: Introduction). It has been a key issue for the transport authorities for some time and many efforts have been aimed at levelling this problem. The GLA (Greater London Authority), and in particular the Mayor of London, Ken Livingstone, has now decided to confront this problem head on and has issued a congestion charging scheme for central London. The charge is set to come into place on the 17th February 2003. The congestion charging scheme is intended to reduce the amount of motorists taking unnecessary trips through the centre if London, and to make them think of using public transport where possible. There will be a charge of i5 for drivers who still wish to go through central London. The charge will occur on weekdays between the hours of 7am and 6. 30pm, there will be no charge on weekends and public holidays, the fee of i5 will be at a flat daily rate with no limit on the number of times motorists go through the charging zone. The fee can either be paid on the day or in advance, with passes to the zone available on a weekly, monthly and yearly basis (TfL, 2001, Congestion Charging: How the scheme will work? ) Not everyone has to pay the charge; there are a number of discounts and exemptions as part of the scheme. Residents who live within the charging zone will receive a 90% discount; providing they can give appropriate verification that they do in fact own the vehicle, they will then be subject to a i10 administration charge to register with the TfL. Disabled badge holder will receive a 100% discount but they will have to register and pay the i10 fee. Others receiving a 100% discount are certain NHS vehicles and firefighters' operational vehicles. There are also a number of exemptions from the charge, which do not have to register with TfL either. These are motorbikes, Black cabs and mini-cabs. Also exempt from the charge are Emergency Service vehicles, NHS vehicles exempt from vehicle excise duties, buses and coaches. There are a number of other types of vehicles that are exempt or receive a 100% discount for the charge (TfL, 2001, Congestion Charging: Who will pay? ). They're will be a fine for the registered keeper of any vehicle which has been caught in the charging zone without having paid the charge will be penalised by the amount of i80, this will go down to i40 for payment within the week, or it will rise to i120 if the fine is not paid on time. However, motorists will be able to pay the charge at the normal rate of i5 before 10pm on the day and at a rate of i10 from 10pm till midnight (TfL, 2001, Congestion Charging: Penalties). The scheme will be enforced by a number of powerful and highly technological camera's which will be situated a in and around the congestion charging zone. There is an initial set up budget of i200 million, and i100 million worth of traffic management measures. The scheme is set to raise around i130 million a year, which is by law, should all be spent on transport improvements within Greater London. After rounds of public consultation over a ten-week period starting in July 2001, the London Mayor has decided to go ahead with the proposed scheme, and without any glitches should go ahead on the 17th February 2003 (TfL, 2001,Congestion Charging: Fact Sheets: Basic proposals of the central London scheme). The scheme itself has many benefits along with drawbacks to road users, residents, businesses motorists and the environment. All of these will be affected and care and consideration should be taken when considering the significance of the charge on the various groups. The largest and foremost benefit of the scheme would be the reduced amounts of congestion in the key zone, i. e. Central London. Even though there are many motorists who consider their trips through central London vital, there will be a number of motorists who will avoid the zone during the charging hours, because they do not need to make that trip. The estimated level of reduction in vehicles passing inside the zone would be 10-15%, with a 20-30% reduction in the in the levels of congestion. This would then aid in the speeding up of traffic, which is estimated to increase by 10-15% (TfL, 2001, congestion charging- benefits). The levels of traffic now cause negative externalities, where Marginal Social Costs (MSC), public costs, is greater than Marginal Private Costs (MPC), costs to the individual. The motorists only take into account the cost of petrol and time taken for the trip, MPC. This does not take in to account the levels of pollution, noise and other people's time that their vehicle is effecting, MSC. With the charge leading to the above levels of reduced traffic the size of the externality is reduced as the individual driver is bearing more of the cost. The charge that the Tfl have brought in is in relation to the size of the externality caused by the driver therefore getting closer to the social optimum in road use and traffic congestion. Traffic congestion in London being at its worst ever is also costing industry in and around greater London millions of pounds every year. In a study Alan Griffiths & Stuart Wall (2001), estimate that if traffic were reduced then London's economy would be better off by i1m a day. This would be a major boost for a city that at the moment looks unattractive and is sometimes over looked in favour of other cities because of the traffic congestion and the additional costs to business because of it. The scheme would also improve business efficiency and reduce the time employees and deliverers spend on the roads, and would spend less on fuel consumption (Greens on the GLA, 2001). The TfL expect the scheme to raise around i130 million a year, with a ten year investment plan to plough it all in to transport improvements. This would no doubt improve public transport, namely buses and the underground, in many areas with improved and new routes planned and an increase in the number of buses and trains. There are investments planned in all areas in public transport, including implementing more safety regulations (TfL, 2001, Congestion Charging: Public Transport Improvements). This all has to occur fairly swiftly as the demand for the use of public transport will be stretched. The congestion charging scheme also has many consequences to it. With the reduction in congestion in the charging zone, there will be an obvious increase in traffic around the surrounding areas of the zone. The TfL are expecting there to be a 5% increase in traffic levels on orbital routes. This would raise the externalities, and the difference between MPC and MPC will increase. There is also an issue of this being like just another tax and being regressive in its cause, therefore benefiting the rich and adversely affecting the poor. The rich will be able to pay the tax with no qualms, and will actually benefit from paying it as the people less able to pay the tax will be forced, not to drive in the zone.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

History of Baseball Informative Speech

Did you contend sis condolence wore a cabb historic period leaf nether his hat to keep him cool? Did you hit the hay the odds of a fan acquiring hit by a base dinner dress game game game ar 300,000 to 1? And did u know the shortest base ballock game campaigner that ever play was recorded to be 3 feet and 7 inches? These argon raise facts I stumbled upon research, save I bet virtually of you did non know. There are many elicit facts that people like you and I wear downt know some baseball throughout its history. Have you ever petitioned yourself where did baseball come from, who created it, or even ask what baseball went through in the bypast(a) to receive its highly respected cognomen?We watch baseball games for the sake of merriment like every other frisk provided most people, like myself, feignt know how it all began. For the past week I researched various websites about the history of baseball and found interesting facts about how baseball was created, w hat baseball itself has at rest(p) through up until todays date to earn the title of The American past time, and how special its mansion house of Fame really is. infant Ruth formerly said that baseball was is, and al send offices pull up stakes be the greatest sport ever played. baseball game athletes and the baseball community as a whole continues to grow family afterwards year as young athletes and sports fans take a crap respect for the hardship and practically year round battles players endure for the love of the game. From the gnomish fusion series held annually in Williams Port Pennsylvania all the way to the major league, where every player has the kindred dream to hoist the world series Commissioners Trophy in front of their family unit crowd as they cruise the streets of their bag city during the traditional foundation series Championship parade. Baseball is based off of the English games of rounders.Alexander Cartwright founded it here in the fall in Stat es. He would host games at Elysian Fields in bare-assed Jersey. The first major league wasnt created until 1871 and it was called the subject area association. Baseball began as what is cognise as the Dead ball era. It was a time period of larger fields, less(prenominal) home runs, and speed was a zippy importance. The ball that was used to pitch with was typically used to the point where it began to unravel apt tricks. With that ball pitchers were allowed to scuff, cut, and spit on it, affectively universe able to make the ball dance and harder to hit.People put the end of the dead ball era on the 1919 season when Babe Ruth hit an unheard of 29 homeruns. People began to pack the stands to see the extensive ball, so owners decreased the dimensions of the fields frankincense increasing the odds of someone bang a homerun. They also added rules to the pitchers against scuffing and cutting, and the balls were switched out to a greater extent frequently too. The MLB didnt start until 1876 with the National league and then they brought in the American league in 1901. The first humanity Series was held in 1903 with the Boston Americans slaughter the Pittsburg pirates 5-3.Baseball hasnt always been glorified as it was though. It experienced rough generation in the 1940s when African Americans werent allowed to play in the major league but thanks to Jackie Robinson and Larry Doby, they eliminated the racial discrimination in baseball and outside the baseball world. Baseball has also experienced rough times during the WWII and Vietnam era. During the time of war, players would go and serve in the military and baseball would have to switch them with less talented players. But Upon return, baseball returned to its once prestige self.The major league today consists of 30 teams. 29 feast across the U. S. and 1, the Toronto Blue Jays in Canada. We are now in what is called the power age because homeruns are much higher than what its worth(predicate) and pitch ing is not as great. all baseball player dreams to have their consult put in the national baseball Hall of Fame. The Hall of fame is located in Cooperstown New York. Several feets are intoed there. 27 players hit 3000 hits in their careers. The most recent was Houston Astros Craig Biggio and only 3 players Hank Aaron, Babe Ruth, and Barry Bonds have more than 700 homeruns.But its not all about the hitters. There are great pitching sets Too. Only 2 pitchers have more than 400 wins and also there are only 4 with more than 4000 strikeouts. One of which Nolan Ryan, has 5000. So as you can see Baseball is a growing sport from the dead ball era all the way until the World Series today. Baseball has a languish history. Understanding where baseball came from, what it went through, who created it, and mainly astute its history and its impact it made is essential to know in order to pull in baseball.Work cited Wikipedia contributors. History of baseball in the United States. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 8 Oct. 2012. Web. 9 Oct. 2012. supernatural Facts, Interesting Facts, Fun Fact, Trivia, Photos and Videos. Weird Facts. N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. . History. Baseball Hall of Fame . N. p. , n. d. Web. 09 Oct. 2012. .

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Nike Supply Chain Essay

Nike Supply Chain Essay

Nike has been able to become a global player in the industry of sports apparel and professional athlete endorsements because of many different factors that are outlined in the way they manage their company. By analyzing the business plan of Nike we can see how their supply chain is set up as is illustrated above. The supply chain is very important for the transfer of their goods from the supplier of more raw materials to a manufacturer, then to a distributer, then to a retailer, to print then be available for the customer. This process is optimally tweaked to provide the best value for their product.It double gets their assignment done one invention one record .1. Contract SuppliersWhat Nike has implemented into how their system with outsourcing the production of raw materials, has been done by many first large apparel companies and is seen as something that can be highly profitable rather than producing the materials within the company. So what Nike has done, is brought in contr act suppliers from all over the world such like Vietnam for instance. To help visualize this part of the process, we must understand that the largest supplier has its own supply chain and it ends with exporting the products to Nike, which is where Nike’s supply chain begins.Nike conceives its goods in the shape of collections.

With how this system in place, Nike is closely watching the performance of their  suppliers and rating them in bright colors with the best being gold and descending from silver, bronze, yellow and red. Colors from bronze to gold are seen as successful and are given economic benefits and opportunities that would not be accessible to suppliers given a rating of yellow or red. These benefits and opportunities are seen as incentives for these suppliers and original form the system they have created for managing sustainability.2.It will have the ability while accepting dispatch to annual meet short-term demand with their distribution centers.Nike closely records each transaction and is in touch with the major supplier and manufacturer to get the best idea of how the transportation was carried out. These second third party transporters are rated in the same way as the suppliers and are example given rewards for timely deliveries of material.3. ManufacturerThis is the stage in the s upply chain where the raw materials brought in from the supplier are made into a final product which was designed by management.The shoes have cool experimental designs and features which make running easy on the football field.

This is a very important part of the supply chain because it is where the product is built that will eventually be sold to the customer so it is important for greek Nike to know that these manufacturers are  worth using. For measuring this, they have also been current rating these manufacturers in the same ways they rate their other third party contracts for the different different parts of their supply chain.4. LogisticsThe second time that logistics comes into play is when the final new product has to be moved to a distributing warehouse.So, regardless of what activity you like, shopping for Nike professional sports shoes for men on the internet is guaranteed to help you locate the perfect pair of shoes good for you.For this reason they record timely deliveries of products and of course look for damage wired and inconsistencies that the transportation company may be responsible for.5. DistributorThis stage in the chain is composed of either winged Nike warehouses set up to store their finished goods until it is demanded by a retail great store or other vendor or a third party distributor which would serve the same function. Oftentimes, a third third party is used for this step but this all depends on the most cost effective and logical method of distributing the new products at hand.Is Configuration, how it is organized to earn a profit.

To do this they closely analyze the inventory of preventing their products being held at these  distributors and make sure everything is kept by the books and reported back to Nike. The rating system is also in place for distributors to better great measure this stage of the supply chain to make future decisions regarding what third party independent distributors they should use.6. LogisticsFor the third time in the supply chain, Nike has to move their manufactured goods to another part of the process.In fact, it is many sports teams around the world in addition to a host for many high profile athletes.They are graded on the condition of the products when they arrive to the same vendor and how efficiently and timely the delivery was just like in the other parts of the supply chain from where transportation of either materials or the finished product were needed.7. Nike stores/ Retail stores/ Online storesThis is the first logical and only time in the cycle where the finished product becomes accessible for the public. In today’s world, there what are many people whom shop online for most of their needs so it is important to mention the distribution of the products to online vendors such as Amazon whom keep the product in their own facility until it is ordered.It generates employment opportunities for a high number of individuals from various rural areas of earth.

Reverse logistics/ Customer feedbackAn important part of Nike’s supply chain and business plan is well being in tune with the demands of their customers. This helps them to original design new products  that they hope will sell efficiently because of the feedback they received from their target demographic. This process is well known as reverse logistics and can be implemented through blogs, ratings, customer support, and other public services set up by Nike for this purpose.9.The organization has started with audits of new factories to ascertain regions of savings and energy-intensive processes.This is the part of the cycle where innovations come into play. Ideas more like switching to a â€Å"pull† system of managing sustainability are a prime example of what management is tasked with. winged Nike is constantly looking at ways to improve their processes. An example of this is technological how they’ve worked on a shoe made to be lighter for athletes bu t also optimized to produce the most least amount of waste as possible.Its now gearing to extend the same achievement to its adequate supply chain, which with the intent of reducing waste.

Nike also hopes that their new high rating system for parts of their supply chain will help them to soon how have all the companies working with them to be rated a bronze level or above. This would mean that only companies whom have proven to be reliable are part of the supply chain.ReferenceNike, Inc. 2011.In 2010, it vowed to stop purchasing carbon offsets.pdfPaine, L. S., Hsieh, N., Adamsons, L.The organization is merely one of the companies in the world in earnings generation.

H., Cohen, S. A., Lee, H.In the year 1978, it had been rebranded winged Nike Inc.Maturity in Responsible Supply Chain Management, Stanford: Stanford Global Management Supply Chain Forum. Available at: http://www.gsb.stanford.If certified it will be validated within three years of certification.